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VIDEO: Damen drydocks a Jumbo

OCTOBER 3, 2016 — Damen Shiprepair Van Brink Rotterdam, in the Netherlands, has completed a three-week repair project on the Jumbo Javelin, a DP2 Heavy Lift Crane Vessel owned and operated by

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Advantages of fast-curing polyurethanes for BWTs

The use of ballast water is critical to the safe operation of ships, but also poses challenges due to the need to maintain the structural integrity of ballast water tanks (BWTs) despite highly corrosive conditions. Appropriate protective coatings act as barriers to corrosion and if applied carefully to properly prepared surfaces can significantly extend the life of BWTs. Two-coat epoxy systems are commonly used today, but rapid curing polyurethanes have performance properties that make them attractive as alternative coating solutions, including tunable properties that allow the formulation of flexible yet hard coatings that resist cracking, excellent adherence to steel, high resistance to corrosion, chemicals, and abrasion and fast return to service.

Ballast tanks located at the bottom, around cargo holds, and near the bow and stern of ships provide a mechanism for maintaining balance. Water is filled or released from the tanks to stabilize and trim ships during sailing and to keep them evenly afloat during the loading and unloading of cargo. Ballast water tanks (BWTs) are typically dedicated for this purpose. Ballast tanks are also used to adjust the buoyancy of submarines and stabilize offshore oil platforms and floating wind turbines.

In marine vessels (tankers, bulk carriers, etc.), ballast tanks typically comprise the largest surface area of steel. Corrosion of these tanks can therefore significantly reduce ship safety and operational life. In the past, ships suffering from severely corroded ballast tanks have experienced total failure of their hull shell plates. There is general agreement in the industry that prevention of corrosion in BWTs is the second most important factor after design integrity in determining the operating life of a ship.

Corrosion prevention in BWTs is not a simple matter, however. The water in ballast tanks can have a high salt content, vary in the type and concentration of other ions and have a wide range for pH and may also contain corrosive chemicals. Empty ballast tanks, on the other hand, are exposed to corrosive atmospheres that cycle with the temperature of the tank. Tanks, when partially full, are also subject to continuous movement of the water.

In fact, different parts of ballast tanks corrode via different mechanisms and at different rates, and empty tanks behave differently than tanks that are often filled with water.  For Example, some parts of tanks are exposed to cyclic heating and cooling and/or local heating from warm, adjacent cargo tanks and engine rooms. Additionally, the exterior of the BWT is exposed to the weather above the water line and the differing temperatures of the sea below the water line.  Therefore the same tank can experience uneven thermal cycling due to the extreme differences in its exterior exposure. Because the upper portion of the tank is exposed to extreme thermal cycling and repetitive wet and dry service, anodic oxidation is the main source of corrosion in this part of the tank. On the other hand, the bottom area of a tank is constantly exposed to the sea and therefore is maintained at a lower temperature and is subject to cathodic blistering.  Any microbes in sediment on the bottom can also cause microbial corrosion.

Many other factors such as bacterial biofilm, mechanical vibration and effectiveness of sacrificial or impressed current anodic protection play a moderate role in determining the rate of corrosion in ballast water tanks.

To prevent corrosion in BWTs, high-performance protective coatings are applied during construction of the ship. Typically two thin layers of a suitable coating with a total dry-film thickness of approximately 300-320 microns are sufficient to provide an effective barrier against corrosion. Such coatings must meet many regulatory requirements related to their environmental and performance characteristics.

Current Coating Technologies
Preferred coatings not only provide a long lifetime of protection (15 years or more is required by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Performance Standard for Protective Coatings (PSPC)¾see below), they must be easy to apply under the varying conditions found at different shipyards around the world and easy to maintain. Coatings that provide greater coverage for less material usage and are more tolerant of poorer surfaces are also in demand. A low volatile organic compound (VOC) content (< 250 g/l) is also necessary.

The majority of BWT coatings applied today are epoxy-based systems. Most are solvent-based, high solids formulations, although some European shipbuilders use solvent-free coatings to meet the requirements of the EU Solvent Emissions Directive (SED). The latter 100% solids epoxy systems have good performance properties, but tend to suffer from poor wetting properties and slower curing rates at low temperatures. Good wettability is necessary to ensure that pitted areas are filled rather than bridged, and thus do not leave a void below the paint film that can act as a starting point for corrosion.

Rapid curing is a very desirable property for BWT coatings because it translates into shorter construction times for new builds and reduced time in dry-dock for recoating and repair. The US Navy has developed a series of 100% solids coatings based on amino polyols prepared from either alkanol amines and polyfunctional epoxy materials or polyamines and monofunctional epoxides that are applied using plural component equipment, which eliminates the poor flow concerns.  They are referred to as “single-coat” systems because the necessary two coats can be applied in one day, rather than in two. The technology for a light-to-medium-duty coating based on a medium-viscosity resin has been licensed and is commercially available. In a study at a commercial shipyard in Asia, the rapid curing coating, which meets the IMO PSPC requirements, was shown to provide a nearly 40% increase in painting productivity and a 20% overall cost savings.

Advantages of Polyurethanes
Certain polyurethane (PU) coatings have also been shown to have significant potential as highly protective barrier coatings for ballast water tanks. Specifically, 100% solids rigid and structural polyurethane coatings are promising because they cure very rapidly, even at cold temperatures, and have superior resistance properties.

One of the major issues with epoxy coatings is their inability to build desired dry film thickness at sharp edges, corners, weld seams and other defect sites. Coating failures generally occur first in these areas, usually do to crack formation. Unfortunately, there are many of these sites present in BTWs. While the PSPC does require that sharp edges be addressed prior to coating, this problem remains a concern in the industry. Advances in epoxy coating technology have helped, but further improvements are still desired.

Polyurethanes have the key advantage of property tunability. Careful selection of the polyisocyanate and polyol segments can provide coatings with very specific properties. For ballast water tank applications, a hard coating is needed that retains some flexibility to allow for high film builds at edges, seams and defect sites. This unique mix of properties, which cannot be achieved with epoxy systems, is possible with polyurethane coatings. Careful preparation of the PU resin and development of the formulated PU coating can provide coatings with desirable edge retention properties.

With the appropriate choice of starting materials, it is also possible to formulate polyurethane systems with curing times that allow for the application of perfectly smooth, high-build coatings. These barrier coatings are applied with no defects in one continuous application and serve as abrasion- and impact-resistant protective barriers to corrosion. Furthermore, because they contain no solvent, 100% solids polyurethane coatings are “green” coatings that meet stringent environmental regulations, and most are odor-free, providing a better shipyard application environment than high-solids epoxies.

Surface adhesion, as for all coating applications, is crucial for BWT coatings and has  a significant impact on coating performance. More forgiving coatings that have strong adhesion to the different types of steel used in shipbuilding and the different types of surface conditions that can be present are therefore highly desired for the protection of ballast water tanks. Polyurethanes meet this requirement and generally surpass the adhesion properties of many epoxy systems.

The inherent barrier properties of polyurethane coatings are also excellent. PUs show high resistance to corrosion and chemicals. In addition, they provide superior abrasion and impact resistance, which is not true for epoxies systems. Finally, the very rapid curing of polyurethanes over a wide temperature range makes them suitable for application to water ballast tanks regardless of where they are built or dry-docked and ensures reduced coating times during newbuilding and fast return to service for repair/maintenance operations.

Performance Requirements: PSPC and Invasive Species Control
The IMO PSPC became effective in 2008 and provides specific requirements for the types of corrosion control coatings that can be used on ballast water tanks, as well as appropriate application, inspection and maintenance procedures. Extensive documentation is also specified in the standard. The intent is to have all BWTs coated with systems that will provide a 215-year service life.

Coating systems must be pre-qualified/certified prior to use in ballast water tanks. Certification can be obtained from an approved, independent testing laboratory, through demonstrated performance in the field for a minimum of five years, or by presenting results from previous, relevant tests. Coating application during the newbuilding process must be extensively monitored, and inspections performed at numerous phases. For example, testing of the surface profile and water-soluble salt content are required before application of the first coat, and a thorough inspection of the first coat is necessary before the second coat can be applied. These requirements can slow down the coating process and increase the cost. Consequently, rapid-cure coatings that allow the application of two coatings in a single day are attracting significant attention.

Recent regulations attempting to prevent the spread of invasive species through ballast water must also be considered when installing BWT coatings. There have been several cases of the transport of invasive species around the world, some of which have had severe ecological and/or economic impacts. However, many of the current chemical technologies available for destroying harmful marine organisms in ballast water are based on oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone) that are damaging to the coatings and can lead to corrosion problems. Mechanical systems based on filtration/separation and those that use ultraviolet radiation tend to be less problematic. Therefore, it is crucial that testing of corrosion control coatings for ballast water tanks be performed under maximum treatment conditions for a given application.

A Word about Surface Preparation, Quality Assurance and Maintenance
As with all coatings, surface preparation is critical to the performance of BWT coatings. In fact, lack of proper surface preparation is one of the main causes for coating failures in ballast water tanks. It is imperative that appropriate surface preparation standards (SSPC/NACE/ASTM) be met. Attention should be paid to both surface profile and soluble salt content.

Application conditions must also be considered, as temperature and relative humidity during application can affect the ultimate performance of many coating systems, particularly epoxies. While most large, modern shipyards have enclosed areas for conducting abrasive sand blasting and painting (with temperature and humidity control), some smaller facilities do not. Work is therefore performed under ambient conditions using power tools, which can result in poor surfaces for coating. Polyurethanes offer advantages in these situations, as they have superior adhesion to poor surfaces and temperature and humidity do not impact their curing or ultimate performance properties.

PUs are Good for Potable Water Tanks
The properties of polyurethanes that make them ideal as corrosion protection coatings for ballast water tanks also make them well-suited for use as protective systems for marine potable water tanks. Many polyurethanes meet the requirements of the ANSI (American National Standards Institute)/NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) Standard 61 – Drinking Water System Components, which establishes stringent requirements for the control of leachables and extractables from materials that come in contact with either potable water or products that support the production of potable water.

Preventing corrosion in ballast water tanks is crucial for ensuring the safety and longevity of on marine vessels. While epoxy systems are currently the most common coatings used in this application today, properly formulated, fast-curing polyurethanes are attractive alternatives with significant potential to reduce lengthy coating processes, increase shipyard productivity and thus reduce costs.

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The Best Ships of 2015


TOTE Maritime’s 3,100-TEU containership Isla Bella was due to set sail for San Juan, PR, on November 24, marking the first time a ship in a Jones Act liner service will burn Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a marine fuel.  When the 764-foot-long Isla Bella transited the Panama Canal back on October 30 on her way to the Port of Jacksonville, Panama Canal Administrator/CEO Jorge L. Quijano called her “a true engineering feat.”

Among the principal maritime stakeholders involved in the successful launch of the Isla Bella and her sister Perla del Caribe are: owner and operator TOTE, shipbuilder General Dynamics NASSCO, designer DSEC (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering’s ship design arm), engine licensee MAN Diesel & Turbo, classification society ABS, and regulator U.S. Coast Guard.

The two Marlin Class containerships were contracted by TOTE in December 2012 and are being built at a total cost of about $375 million.

The 764-ft Isla Bella is equipped with the world’s first dual-fuel slow-speed engine, an 8L70ME-GI built by Korea’s Doosan Engine, under license from MAN Diesel & Turbo. With a 3,100 TEU capacity, the LNG-powered Isla Bella reduces NOx emissions by 98 percent, SOx emissions by 97 percent and CO2 emissions by 76 percent. The technology makes the ship one of the world’s most environmentally friendly containerships afloat.

During LNG will allow the Marlin Class Isla Bella to be fully compliant with strict emissions regulations while operating in both the North American Emissions Control Area and the U.S. Caribbean ECA.

At the time of her delivery, Kevin Graney, Vice President and General Manager of General Dynamics NASSCO, said, “Successfully building and delivering the world’s first LNG-powered containership here in the United States for coastwise service demonstrates that commercial shipbuilders, and owners and operators, are leading the world in the introduction of cutting-edge, green technology in support of the Jones Act.”

The moment is bittersweet for TOTE as it unfolds within the shadow of the tragic loss of the SS El Faro with all hands aboard during Hurricane Joaquin on October 1. The ship’s crew of 28 and five Polish nationals onboard were lost. The U.S. Navy, working with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), has located the ship in waters 15,000 feet deep near the Crooked Island in the Bahamas.

The Isla Bella will be joined by the Perla del Caribe in Puerto Rico cargo service in the first quarter of 2016.



The 330,000 bbl Ohio was became the first product tanker to be built with the future consideration for the future use of LNG as fuel when it was delivered earlier this year to Crowley Maritime Corp. by Aker Philadelphia Shipyard, Philadelphia, PA.

New OhioWebThe Ohio received American Bureau of Shipping’s (ABS) LNG-Ready Level 1 approval, meaning Crowley has the option to convert the tanker to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) propulsion in the future.

The Ohio along with her three ships being built at Aker Philadelphia are based on a proven Hyundai Mipo Dockyards (HMD) design which incorporates numerous fuel efficiency features, flexible cargo capability, and a slow-speed diesel engine built under license from MAN Diesel & Turbo. The 600 feet long Ohio is capable of carrying crude oil or refined petroleum products.

Crowley’s Seattle-based, naval architecture and marine engineering subsidiary Jensen Maritime is providing construction management services for the product tankers. Jensen now has an on-site office and personnel at the Philadelphia shipyard to ensure strong working relationships with shipyard staff and a seamless construction and delivery program.

“We are excited to offer our customers cutting-edge technology available in these new tankers, which not only embraces operational excellence and top safety, but also offers the potential to be powered by environmentally friendly LNG in the future,” said Crowley’s Rob Grune, senior vice president and general manager, petroleum and chemical transportation. “Adding these new Jones Act tankers to our fleet allows us to continue providing our customers with diverse and modern equipment to transport their petroleum and chemical products in a safe and reliable manner.”

Blount Boats, Inc., Warren, RI, delivered the Chandra B, a new mini-tanker for American Petroleum & Transport, Inc., Miller Place, NY. The 79 ft by 23 ft, double-hull bunkering tanker operates in New York Harbor and New Jersey supplying fuel to ferries, dinner boats, dredges, and other vessels.

ChandraBPropulsion power for the tanker is supplied by two EPA Tier 3-compliant Cummins Model QSL9, six-cylinder diesel engines rated at 330 hp at 1,800 rev/min with ZF Model W325 marine hydraulic gears that will have 4.91:1 reduction ratio. The self-propelled Chandra B is equipped with a 50 hp Wesmar hydraulic bow thruster, providing it with enhanced maneuverability.

Designed by Farrell & Norton Naval Architects, Newcastle, ME, the Chandra B is built to USCG Subchapter “D” specifications and is less than 100 gross tons. Farrell & Norton also designed one of the tank barges in American Petroleum & Transport’s fleet. The double-hull Chandra B will replace the 1979-built single hull Capt. Log in American Petroleum & Transport’s fleet.

American Petroleum & Transport (APT) has had to retire all of its single-hull tankers because of OPA 90 regulations.

APT vessels crisscross New York Harbor delivering ultra low sulfur diesel to clients such as Circle Line, New York Water Taxi, Great Lakes Dredge & Dock, and Sterling Equipment, as well as for the auxiliary engines of larger ships. The Chandra B has cargo fuel tankage is designed to hold a capacity of 56,450 gallons.



This past year, NYK took delivery of Sakigake, Japan’s first LNG fueled tug. Built at NYK’s wholly owned subsidiary Keihin Dock Co’s Oppama shipyard, the 37.2 m x 10.2 m Sakigake is operated by Wing Maritime Service Corporation, mainly in the ports of Yokohama and Kawasaki. Wing Maritime also operates the hybrid tug Tsubasa.

Sakigake webThe Sakigake is equipped with two Niigata 6L28AHX-DF dual-fuel engines, each developing 1,618 kW. Propulsion is supplied by two Niigata Z-Pellers.

The DF engines can burn either LNG or diesel oil. The environmental advantages of operating on LNG as compared with conventionally powered tugs that use marine diesel oil is Sakigake emits about 30 percent less CO2, 80 percent less NOx, and no SOx.

While the project posed several challenges—the relatively small size and limited amount of space on the tug, and the large variation in engine power—Keihin Dock was able to achieve the desired level of environmental performance while maintaining the same hull form and steering performance of existing tugs. Keihin Dock worked closely with both Niigata Power Systems and Air Water Plant & Engineering Inc. to develop equipment for supplying LNG.

The project was supported by subsidies from Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. ClassNK also provided joint research support.




Emblazoned on the JS Ineos Insight’s hull is the phrase, “Shale Gas for Manufacturing.” Built specifically to transport shale gas from the U.S. to Europe, the JS Ineos Insight is the first of eight 180m x 26.6m ethane gas carriers built by China’s Sinopacific for Denmark’s Evergas.


JSINEOSINSIGHT 2Named on July 14, the JS Ineos Insight can not only carry ethane, LPG or LNG, but can also burn ethane, LNG and conventional diesel in its two Wartsila 50DF dual fuel engines.

The eight Ineos ships will transport over 800,000 tons of ethane gas at -90°C per annum across the Atlantic from the U.S. to Norway and Scotland.

Classed by Bureau Veritas, the Dragon vessels were originally designed as dual-fuel LNG/diesel-powered vessels, with two 1,000 m3 LNG tanks on deck powering two Wärtsilä 6L20 DF main engines with a total output of 2,112 kW and two shaft generators with a total output of 3,600 kW power. The vessels will initially transport ethane from the U.S, to the U.K. Ineos refineries, the ability to also burn ethane was added to allow use of the cargo gas as fuel. 

At the christening of the JS Ineos Insight and the JS Ineos Ingenuity, Ineos Chairman Jim Ratcliffe says, “Today is a landmark day for both Ineos and Europe. We have seen how U.S. shale gas revolutionized U.S. manufacturing and we believe these huge ships will help do the same for Europe. Ineos together with Evergas has commissioned eight brand new ships, accessed hundreds of miles of new pipeline and built two enormous terminals to get U.S. Shale gas to Europe. The scale of the whole project is truly breathtaking.”

According to Bureau Veritas Business Development Manager Martial Claudepierre, the ability to burn ethane and LNG as fuel in the Dragon Class ships “is a major step forward in the use of clean fuels.” He says that BV worked with Evergas and the Danish Maritime Authority to verify and ensure that the use of ethane is at least as safe as required by the IGC and will not impair the engine compliance with MARPOL Annex VI.  

According to Claudepierre, using ethane required extra engine room ventilation and additional gas detection, plus modifications to the main engines including a lower compression ratio, different turbocharger nozzles and de-rating of the engine to cope with the lower knocking resistance of ethane. “But,” he says, “The gains in not carrying an additional fuel and in environmental performance from being able to burn clean fuel throughout the voyage are significant.”


Capable of carrying up to 1,200 cars and 1,400 TEU of containers, the Combination Container and Roll-on/Roll-Off (ConRO) vessel Marjorie C entered Jones Act service this year between the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii.

honolulu 13231 webBuilt by VT Halter Marine, Pascagoula, MS, the Marjorie C was engineered from a proven design by Grimaldi at Croatia’s Uljanik Shipyard. The 692 ft x 106 ft ConRO has a draft of 31 ft, deadweight of 21,132.5 metric tons, with nine decks. It has a stern ramp capacity of 350 metric tons. The ship has a service speed of 21.5 knots.

The vessel’s design incorporates the highest level of operating efficiencies as well as reduced environmental impacts. The sister vessel, Jean Anne, was Pasha Hawaii’s first Jones Act vessel and has been serving the Hawaii/Mainland trade since March 2005. The Marjorie C entered into service this past May.

The ship is named in honor of Pasha Hawaii’s President and CEO George Pasha, IV’s grandmother, Marjorie Catherine Ryan.

“After more than three and a half years of planning and construction, we are pleased to unveil a ship that has been designed to not only accommodate the varying needs of our customers, but a vessel that minimizes our carbon footprint through extensive fuel consumption efficiencies and other green technologies,” said Pasha Hawaii’s President and CEO, George Pasha, IV. “With the addition of the Marjorie C we can now offer customers increased service and capacity between the West Coast and Hawaii trade lane on vessels providing superior reliability and cargo protection.”

This past Halloween, the first-of-class oceanographic research vessel R/V Neil Armstrong (AGOR 27) set sail from Dakota Creek Industries, Anacortes, WA, to San Francisco, CA, on its inaugural voyage. As we went to press, the Neil Armstong was waiting its turn to pass through the Panama Canal on its way north to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Woods Hole, MA. The ship will be operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution under a charter party agreement with Office of Naval Research (ONR).

Armstrong AerialsC00069.16Designed by Guido Perla & Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA and owned by the U.S. Navy, Neil Armstrong is 238 ft x 50 ft with a depth of 22 ft and draft of 15 ft. The first of two research vessels, the Neil Armstrong has four main 1,400 kW diesel generators, two 876 kW propulsion motors, and two controllable pitch propellers. The ship has a sustained speed of 12 knots and maximum speed of 12.8 knots.

The ship was classed by ABS Under 90 meter rules A1, Circle E, AMS, ACCU, NIBS, Ice Class D0, UWILD, 46 CFR Subchapter U, SOLAS (Oceanographic Vessels), MARPOL.

The Neil Armstrong’s sister vessel, the R/V Sally Ride (AGOR 28), is also under construction at Dakota Creek Industries.

During acceptance trials, Mike Kosar, Program Manager for the Support Ships, Boats and Craft office within the Program Executive Office (PEO), Ships, says, “The results of these tests and the outstanding fit, finish and quality of the vessel, stand as a testament to the preparation and effort of our entire shipbuilding team. It reflects the exceptionalism of AGOR 27’s namesake, Neil Armstrong.”

Neil Armstrong Class AGORS incorporate the latest technologies, including high-efficiency diesel engines, emissions controls for stack gasses, and new information technology tools both for monitoring shipboard systems and for communicating with the world. These ships will provide scientists with the tools and capabilities to support ongoing research including in the Atlantic, western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions across a wide variety of missions.

The lab areas include the main lab of 1,023 ft2, the wet area of 398 ft2, computer area of 311 ft2, and staging area bay of 303 ft2.

Neil Armstrong will be capable of assisting with integrated, interdisciplinary, general purpose oceanographic research in coastal and deep ocean areas. The vessel will operate with a crew of 20 with accommodations for 24 scientists.



Recently named in a ceremony at shipbuilder Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries’ Mokpo, South Korea, shipyard, Barzan is the first in a series of six 18,800 TEU containerships ordered by Dubai headquartered United Arab Shipping Company (UASC). It is the first vessel to receive classification society DNV GL’s new GAS READY notation. Her five sister ships and eleven 15,000 TEU vessels of UASC’s newest eco-ship generation, will also receive the notation.

Barzan 3The ships have been designed and constructed to enable a quick and cost efficient retrofit to LNG fueling at a later stage. The GAS READY notation, with nominators (D, S, MEc, AEi) demonstrates that the vessel is in compliance with the gas fueled notation rules, that structural reinforcements to support the fuel containment system (LNG tank) have been verified (S), that the main engines installed can be converted to dual fuel (MEc ) and that the auxiliary engines installed can be operated on gas (AEi).

“We believe that this vessel, as well as the rest of the vessels in our new building program, demonstrates our commitment to technical innovation and eco-effectiveness,” says Jørn Hinge, President and CEO of UASC. “For UASC, achieving optimum efficiency levels is not a single initiative or project, it is a strategy and an ongoing commitment, and we will continue to work with DNV GL on the remaining newbuild vessels that have the lowest levels of CO2 output in their class.”

As well as being LNG ready, Barzan and her sister vessels incorporate several innovative energy saving methods, including a Siemens’ Siship SGM environmentally friendly drive and power generation system.

The Waste Heat Recovery System (WHRS) converts thermal energy from the exhaust gas from the main engines into electrical power to maximize the efficiency of the system.

The Barzan was expected to have an EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) value that is close to 50 per cent less than the 2025 limit set by IMO, with a CO2 output per TEU that is more than 60 per cent lower than a 13,500 TEU vessel delivered just three years ago.

Barzan has been constructed to DNV GL class rules with the notations: 1A1 Container Carrier DG-P Shore Power E0 NAUT-OC HMON (A1,C1,G4) CLEAN BWM-T BIS TMON NAUTICUS (Newbuilding) GAS READY (D, S, MEc, AEi).



Tidewater Transportation and Terminals, Vancouver, WA, recently took delivery of the Crown Point, the first in a series of three 102 ft x 38 ft towboats being built at Vigor Industrial in Portland, OR.

CrownPointThe three towboats are the first new vessels to be built for the Tidewater fleet in 30 years, and are critical for the company to meet the anticipated rising customer demand on the Columbia-Snake River system. “The launching of the Crown Point, and the forthcoming Granite Point and Ryan Point vessels, marks an important step for Tidewater,” says Marc Schwartz, Maintenance & Engineering Manager at Tidewater. The vessels will strengthen our fleet, as well as reinforce Tidewater’s commitment to our customers, community, and environment.”

Tidewater operates the largest barge transportation and terminal network on the Columbia-Snake River system. The Crown Point joins the company’s current fleet of 16 vessels and 160 barges. Tidewater transports a wide range of cargo among a network of ports, terminals and grain elevators throughout the entire Columbia-Snake River system, which stretches some 465 miles of waterways. We also operate five strategically located terminals and five pipelines with key intermodal connections to railroads, highways and other pipelines.

Designed by CT Marine, Naval Architects and Marine Engineers of Edgecomb, ME, the Crown Point is an environmentally friendly tug with EPA Tier 3 compliant diesel engines that reduce air emissions and improve fuel efficiency. Main propulsion is supplied by two Caterpillar 3516C EPA Tier 3 certified diesel engines producing 2,240 bhp, each at 1,600 rev/min. The engines drive two 92 in. x 100 in. fixed pitch, stainless steel propellers through CT28 Kort Nozzles capable of a service speed of 8 knots. Operating in the Columbia River Gorge high winds, extreme currents and swells can be considered normal piloting conditions. That’s why the Crown Pount abd her sister towboats are fitted with an enhanced steering system using four steering and four flanking rudders was designed. The towboat has a wheelhouse with exceptional all-round visibility through full height windows, leading edge navigation and communications equipment, and enhanced accommodations for the captain and crew.

“During the last year and a half, a great deal of effort went into designing, engineering and building a towboat that would meet or exceed performance parameters,” explains Bruce Reed, Tidewater COO and Vice President. “With crew endurance being a priority, we employed Noise Control Engineers, Billerica, MA to develop a sound and vibration control package for the vessel. By incorporating Christie and Grey vibration control mounts and comprehensive acoustic insulation, noise levels register at less than 60 decibels in the accommodations during vessel operation.”

Other equipment onboard the Crown Point includes two C7.1, Tier 3 generators, rated at 480v, 200 kW at 1,800 rev/min.  The generators are controlled through an automatic transfer system that ensures the vessel will recover from a generator power loss in less than 30 seconds. Deck machinery includes seven Patterson WWP 65E-7.5, 65-ton electric deck winches, with pilothouse remote operation and local push button control stations on the main deck. Each winch has Samson 1 3/8” Turbo 75 Synthetic Line.
In order to use the newest technology and minimize power usage, variable frequency drives were used in all major rotating machinery applications and LED lighting was employed in both interior and exterior lighting applications. The vessel is fitted with a Kidde NOVEC 1230 fire suppression system. Centralized fire detection and alarms cover both the machinery spaces and accommodations.



This past year, Netherlands-based towage and salvage specialist Multraship took delivery of Multratug 28, a Damen ASD 2810 Hybrid tug built at Damen Shipyards Galaţi, in Romania, as part of a fleet expansion program.

ASD Tug 2810 Multratug 28Classed by Lloyd’s Register, the hybrid Multratug 28 is 28.67m x 10.43m, with a maximum draft of 4.9m. The propulsion system includes two MTU 16V4000M63R diesel engines with one MTU 12V 2000 M41B propulsion genset of 800 kvA, 440V-60Hz. The battery pack are two 120 kWh. Two Rolls Royce US205 azimuth thrusters provide propulsion. The tug has a bollard pull of 62 tons, diesel direct speed of 13 knots, diesel electric speed of 8 knots, and battery pack speed of 4 knots.

The ASD 2810 HYBRID is developed to save fuel by 30% and to reduce emissions by 50%. To achieve this the vessel is provided with a propulsion system that can operate diesel-direct, diesel-electric or fully-electric. Fully-electric sailing on the batteries, with zero emissions and extremely low noise levels, is possible for time periods of up to one hour at a speed of 4 knots.

In June 2014, the first Damen ASD 2810 Hybrid was delivered to Iskes Towage & Salvage. Being green does not mean sacrificing power, the Bernardus still has a bollard pull of 60 tonnes. The Bernardus operates in the Port of IJmuiden near Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

“This hybrid tug is a unique concept,” says Dinu Berariu, Project Manager at Damen Shipyards Galaţi. “It features a diesel-direct, diesel-electric and battery powered propulsion system. This hybrid configuration will enable Multraship to lower fuel costs by up to 30 percent and emissions by up to 60 percent.”

Headquartered in the harbor city of Terneuzen, Multraship operates in the ports around the Scheldt estuary, in Zeeland seaports and the Belgian ports of Ghent and Antwerp, as well as the Bulgarian port of Burgas on the Black Sea.

Multraship’s fleet expansion program stems from its increasing customer base in the offshore sectors as well as growing demand for harbor towage services.

As we went to press, the world’s third largest containership company, CMA CGM Group, Marseilles, France, was closing in on the acquisition of Singapore-based NOL, the world’s fourth largest. It successful, privately held CMA CGM would leapfrog over MSC to become number two in the world.

CMACGM Vasco de GamaA big part of CMA CGM’s success is its investments in larger, more energy efficient tonnage to improve pricing and economies of scale. An excellent example is the CMA CGM Vasco De Gama delivered this summer to CMA CGM by China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC).

With a length of 399 m and breadth of 54 m, the 18,000 TEU vessel is the largest containership in the CMA CGM Group and is the first 18,000 TEU containership to be built by a Chinese shipyard. CSSC is also building two more of the giant box ships, the CMA CGM Zheng He and CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin.

Flying the U.K. flag, CMA CGM Vasco De Gama is equipped with the latest environmental technologies including a latest generation main engine, a twisted leading edge rudder with bulb from Germany’s Becker Marine Systems and an optimized hull design. These innovations decrease the vessel’s CO2 emissions by 10% compared to the previous vessel generation. With an estimated emission of 37g of CO2/km for each container carried, the giant containership provides one of the world’s greenest goods transportation options.

The ship’s environmental footprint meets the 2025 energy efficiency regulations.

CMA CGM Vasco De Gama calls at 11 different countries on CMA CGM Group’s French Asia Line (FAL) service between Europe and Asia.

CMA CGM is also building three 20,600 TEU containerships—the largest yet built—at Korea’s Hanjin Heavy Industries. Those three ships will each have full spade twisted rudders (TLKSR) from Becker Marine Systems and Becker Twisted Fins. Both Becker products will make a significant contribution to the vessel’s efficiency improvement.



As of September this past year, Denmark’s ESVAGT had new owners; 3i Infrastructure and AMP Capital acquired the shares of A.P. Møller-Maersk Group and ESE-Holding. While ESVAGT’s primary market will continue to be oil and gas support and standby rescue in the North Sea, the company is broadening its portfolio with a push into the offshore wind energy market.

EsvagtFroude243This past summer, ESVAGT entered the offshore wind industry with the christening of the world’s first purpose-built Service Operation Vessels at Siemens AG in Rostock and Hamburg, Germany.

The Service Operation Vessels (SOV), Esvagt Froude and Esvagt Faraday are each 83.7m x 17.6m, with a draft of 6.5m. Both of the Danish-flag SOVs were built in Norway by Havyard Ship Technology and are based on a Havyard 832 SOV design. The SOVs both have diesel-electric propulsion and DC power systems, enabling optimized fuel and energy efficiency and crew comfort. The service speed is 14 knots.

The SOVs are essentially “service stations at sea,” offering technicians a safe, efficient platform for wind turbine maintenance. Using the ship’s DP system, the ship can connect to wind turbines via its Ampelmann A-type Walk-to-work hydraulic gangway system offering a stable, safe platform to connect to the wind turbine.

Each offers accommodations for 60 people. The vessels are designed to reduce the level of vibration and increase the level of comfort for everyone onboard.

“As a supplement to the “Walk-to-Work” gangway, we have equipped the Service Operation Vessels with the newly developed ESVAGT Safe Transfer Boats (STB 7 and STB 12),” says Søren Nørgaard Thomsen, Managing Director for ESVAGT. “They are designed in-house based on more than 20 years of experience in boat development and more than 100,000 boat transfers. These boats will in a safe manner provide the industry with additional efficiencies and cost reductions.”

Each of the ships carry ESVAGT STB 7B Safe Transfer Boat, ESVAGT STB 12A Safe Transport Boat, ESVAGT FRB 15C Fast Rescue Boat.

A third ESVAGT SOV is on order and under construction at Havyard for delivery in 2016. The third ESVAGT SOV will service the 400 MW Dudgeon Wind Farm off the East Coast of England in the fall of 2016.

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Team aims to speed availability of LNG as marine fuel

The team, led by Siemens Drilling and Marine, Dresser-Rand and Lloyd’s Register, aims to provide an end-to-end solution, encompassing the entire supply chain, that will remove obstacles that can hold back wide-spread adoption of natural gas as the marine fuel of choice.

“Our integrated solution, encompassing the entire supply chain of LNG including gas-fueled marine propulsion systems, will remove the chicken-and-egg hurdle from the LNG-equation,” says David Grucza, Siemens Drilling and Marine. “This is a disruptive concept for the maritime industry, and the technology exists for immediate adoption. This joint solution is not limited geographically, and we stand ready to support the marine industry globally, although our initial focus is on deploying U.S. shale gas.”

The initial end-to-end solution offered to the North American inland and coastal waterways community comprises the following elements

  • LNGo liquefaction barge;
  • LNG bunkering barge (C-Type tanks with up to 2,500 cu.m capacity); and
  • 4,200 or higher horsepower river pushboat.

It has been designed and engineered by Waller Marine Inc. (WMI) and the Shearer Group Inc. (TSGI), respectively, and will be constructed by Conrad Industries shipyard in Texas.

“Together, the team brings a holistic answer to the LNG marine fuel question of what comes first – the bunkering station or the engine?” says David Waller, President, Waller Marine, Inc. “The innovative solution to this industry hurdle includes the entire supply chain from liquefaction, LNG bunkering and design, all while meeting EPA and USCG compliance and providing smart, sustainable, lower greenhouse gas alternative fuels to operators.”

“Lloyd’s Register is well placed to support a new fleet of gas-fueled ships – and help them to operate safely and efficiently,” says Mark Darley, Americas Regional Marine Manager and President of Lloyd’s Register North America (LRNA). “Our expertise and leadership in gas technology and operations – from gas carriers to LNG bunkering and gas as a marine fuel – helps lead to the best decisions based on the best, independent, technical insight.”

Lloyd’s Register has established clear standards describing different levels of readiness to use natural gas as a marine fuel. Lloyd’s Register also provides training on the key practical aspects of modern LNG carriage by sea and risk management services to support safe LNG bunkering.

Siemens AG (Berlin and Munich) is active in more than 200 countries, focusing on the areas of electrification, automation and digitalization. One of the world’s largest producers of energy-efficient, resource-saving technologies, Siemens is No. 1 in offshore wind turbine construction, a leading supplier of gas and steam turbines for power generation, a major provider of power transmission solutions and a pioneer in infrastructure solutions.

Dresser-Rand, a Siemens Business, is among the largest suppliers of rotating equipment solutions to the worldwide oil, gas, petrochemical, and process industries.

Lloyd’s Register (LR) is the leading classification society in the gas carrier market – both for LNG and LPG – and is also taking a leadership role in the international development of gas as a marine fuel.

Waller Marine, Inc. is a global leader in the design of Floating Gas to Liquids (GTL), Floating Power Generation and Floating Liquefaction (LNG) and is is a licensed engineering firm with EPC capabilities.

Conrad Industries Inc. specializes in the construction, conversion and repair of a wide variety of marine vessels for commercial and governmental customers and the fabrication of modular components of offshore drilling rigs and floating, production, storage and offloading vessels.It has been awarded a contract to build a 2,200 cu.m. LNG bunkering barge — the first in the U.S.

The Shearer Group, Inc., founded in 2010, provides naval architecture, marine engineering, marine surveying and professional engineer services to clients in the inland and offshore marine industries.

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Building the Future


Over the past 18 months, fluctuations in oil prices have caused serious disruptions within the oil and gas marine sector. While some tanker operators received a boost earlier this year due to the fall in oil prices, other sectors are struggling to cover their operating costs, resulting in rigs standing idle and transport vessels being kept in dock.

But it’s not just in oil and gas. Whether it’s exploring deep waters offshore, sailing in a luxury cruise liner, or transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG), marine operators are all seeking to lower their operating expenses. In this market, the two most important things for improving stability are strongly interlinked: minimizing costs and increasing efficiency.

In my view, there are six things that should be considered to unlock the cost savings and efficiency in the marine sector in the years ahead.

Reducing fuel consumption
According to the 2015 “The New Climate Economy” report, fuel represents 50 percent or more of a ship’s operating costs. Being able to drive down fuel consumption is important for reducing costs within the industry while also reducing the environmental impact.

Maintaining the position of a ship can be a fuel-hungry process. Many of today’s ships are the size of several football fields combined. To maintain a predetermined course or position, counteracting the effects of displacing forces such as wind, current, and wave action, is no easy task. Dynamic Positioning (DP) systems provide mariner-focused solutions to put operators back in control. They predict future motion and update a vessel’s thrust demands to prevent movement beyond the operator’s defined area. Among the various benefits of this technology is the ability to minimize fuel burn and machinery wear in situations where tight position holding isn’t essential through the use of a dedicated energy-efficient (EE) mode.

Energy efficiency is improved because fewer corrections are required as thrusters, propellers and rudders control the vessel position, delivering expected fuel savings of up to 10 percent, reducing NOx emissions by up to 20 percent and lowering equipment maintenance requirements. It helps to deliver additional operational savings while meeting increasingly rigorous environmental regulations.  

Upgrading propulsion systems for reduced footprint, increased space for cargo and reduced fuel requirements
Bigger is not always better. A recent GE study revealed that careful system design could reduce the installed power requirement in a ship by up to 25% compared to the baseline, meaning the vessel requires fewer or smaller engines, translating into CAPEX savings, reduced fuel costs and increased payload within the hull.

Gas turbine propulsion system solutions can also free up space to carry more revenue-generating cargo and meet current emissions limits. For offshore support vessels, modern electric propulsion systems can further generate fuel efficiency savings of 5 to 10 percent when compared to traditional mechanical systems. These fuel-flexible gas turbines range from 4.5 megawatts to 52 megawatts and are excellent prime movers for mechanical drive, hybrid or all electric propulsion systems, all the while reducing operational costs.

Electric propulsion systems have also been deployed in various merchant marine vessels. The first electrically propelled LNG carriers in China are being built with a dual-fuel, diesel-electric power plant. Set to be completed in 2016 and 2017, these vessels will benefit from using reliable and cost-efficient power and propulsion solutions combining induction-based technology with a Power pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converter.

As new and innovative technology continues to hit the market, improved propulsion systems are reducing costs, increasing space available for cargo or other commercial activity, and reducing fuel consumption.

Addressing the skills shortage through training and remote vessel monitoring
As with many other technology and engineering sectors, there is a feeling in the marine industry that a skill shortage is already upon us. There are two ways in which the sector is addressing this.

First, better training and availability of engineering experts already in the industry. Training gives us confidence in handling whatever challenges are thrown at us. We have been extending the scope of our Marine Services Training Centers at locations around the world. Strategically placed global training centers are a requirement for building a strong knowledge base around vessel operators, and provide local support wherever it is needed. Indeed, drives, automation services and DP training take place worldwide to ensure that vessel operators are able to run equipment at the optimum level irrespective of the level of deep technical knowledge available across a fleet.

Second, new Industrial-Internet powered predictive systems on board vessels can anticipate system failures, limiting the need for emergency maintenance as systems can be repaired before an issue emerges. Modern ships are designed to empower operators and give them a comprehensive performance measurement of individual assets, fleets or the business as a whole. Analytics and insight delivered via a single, unified portal makes remote machine and systems information available for live status and productivity support, saving time and cost, and are importantly reducing the need for on-board specialists as onshore teams are able to predict issues before they arise and deploy specialists only when necessary.

Meeting the requirements of more stringent environmental regulations
While dealing with fluctuations in oil prices, operators have also had to tackle increasingly stringent environmental regulations and reduced emissions targets.

The context of environmental regulations is increasingly stringent: we are seeing Emission Control Area (ECA) zones emerge with very strict requirements for emissions. These regulations are increasingly widespread and are part of the “new normal” for the marine sector.

As such, a whole range of innovations is needed here. For example, new engine technology eliminates the need for a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) for exhaust gas after-treatment and for storing or using urea aboard a vessel. As a result it preserves valuable cargo and tank space and reduces emissions by an estimated 70 percent.  

A new application of a proven gas turbine-based power and propulsion system that’s been used in cruise ships—the Combined Gas turbine Electric and Steam (COGES) system—addresses the same issues of environmental regulatory compliance. This compact, lightweight combined cycle power plant provides power for electric drive propulsion systems, leaves more room for cargo, and meets IMO Tier III and US EPA Tier 4 regulations today, with no exhaust treatment or methane slip. While methane slip is not regulated today, many operators are concerned that it will be in the future, since methane is 21 times as damaging as CO2 from a greenhouse gas perspective.

As increasing efficiencies becomes more important in today’s volatile market, vessel operators must look at every aspect of their operating model to ensure these are met to drive long term profitability.

A new approach to financing that will enable projects and strengthen operators’ financial capabilities
Instead of taking on the full risk of vessel design and development costs themselves at the beginning of a project, operators are partnering with strategic suppliers to share the capital outlays needed to construct ships. To support vessel operators in this volatile market, a similar approach can also be taken beyond the initial construction of the ship to ensure that vessel operators have cash flexibility for operating costs and strengthened long-term financial capability beyond construction. This new approach to financing, both at the initial construction phase and later during operations, will enable the project, as well as strengthen operators’ financial capabilities, to help deliver a more cost-effective future.

Increasing innovative manufacturing techniques, cutting downtime in manufacturing docks
It is not just system design that can reduce costs; the actual implementation time of a new system is also critical. For example, many modular offshore systems are now pre-assembled at the factory to reduce installation time when deployed in dock or at sea. In one case, everything, including all electronics, controls and other auxiliary skids come pre-assembled and tested, increasing installation speed by up to 30 percent. This means less time in dock for shipbuilding or upgrade, which helps cut costs further.

Final Thoughts
In conclusion, these six areas for driving cost savings and efficiency are crucial to the future of the marine industry. More efficient and effective propulsion, power and positioning systems are driving down costs and driving up productivity.

The emergence of multi-fuel, low-emission vessels are giving operators flexibility, cost-control and helping them achieve compliance with environmental regulations. At the same time, data analytics and vessel management software is giving operators better reliability and control over maintenance costs at sea and in dock, even as more sophisticated systems are reducing the environmental strain caused by the sector.

What’s really important however is to realize that these issues can’t be solved in isolation: a whole-vessel strategy is necessary to compete and thrive in today’s global marine space.

  • News

Motion compensated knuckle boom crane delivered

MARCH 22, 2015 — Barge Master. Capelle a/d IJssel, the Netherlands has successfully delivered its first Barge Master T40 (BM-T40) motion compensated knuckle boom crane. The BM-T40 is installed on the Wagenborg

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Ulstein books first X-Stern order

JANUARY 13, 2015 — Norway’s Ulstein Verft has signed a shipbuilding contract with Hamburg, Germany, based Bernhard Schulte for two vessels that will be the first to be built at the shipyard

Voith designs High Flow Installation Vessel

FEBRUARY 21, 2014 — A new type of construction vessel could make projects such as the installation of tidal energy turbines feasible in more places. British marine renewable energy specialist Mojo Maritime

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Damen introduces “walk-to-work” WSV

NOVEMBER 19, 2013 — Damen Shipyards has unveiled a completely new wind farm service vessel (WSV) to support and accommodate turbine maintenance crews at sea and allow them to “walk-to-work.” After industry-wide