As the European Union steps up its support for Ukraine, the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping has been added to the list of state-owned enterprises subject to EU sanctions imposed in response
Sun Feng has become the new chairman and president of China Classification Society (CCS), succeeding Mo Jianhui who has retired, while while Cai Yanxian becomes one of four vice presidents, replacing Zhu
APRIL 9, 2018 — Classification society ABS is engaged in a two-year project with the U.S. Navy’s Military Sealift Command (MSC) to deliver the industry’s first bow-to-stern Condition-based Class asset management program.
Development of large, LNG-fueled containerships moving ahead. Classification societies DNV and Bureau Veritas have each given approval in principle to designs for such vessels. Kawasaki Heavy Industries has gotten approval for a
ML: Tell us a bit about your background. How did you get started in the marine business?
MD: Originally from the UK, my introduction to the Marine world can be traced back to growing up and learning to sail in my early teens—as well as the influence of my father, a mechanical engineer. To complement my understanding of science and engineering, and my sailing hobby, by the time I was University age, I chose to undertake a Naval Architecture and Offshore engineering degree. A graduate of both the Lloyds Register (LR) internship program and Lloyds Register Graduate training scheme, I have been fortunate, but also driven to obtain a diverse understanding of the global supply chain and Marine business as a whole over the 16 years I have worked for LR. Having held a variety of roles across our business and areas of operations—from London, Dubai, South Africa, South East Asia and now the Americas—each role has been an incredible professional and personal learning experience, and has given me a broad view of our clients, their challenges, the global interconnected nature of our Marine business as well as the place and importance of Lloyd’s Register both now and as we look to the future.
ML: You’ve worked with Lloyd’s Register in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Are the challenges for a classification society any different in Americas than the rest of the world?
MD: Irrespective of geography, at Lloyd’s Register our primary aim is about helping to shape the future of shipping, while delivering solutions today – helping clients and stakeholders make the best commercial decisions based on the best technical insight. Over the years this has seen an evolution in how and what all Classification societies view as their part in the industry, from core classification to industry and individual client advisors. Clearly irrespective of geography, many of our client challenges are similar and I think one thing my global experience has taught me is that there are many synergies between geographies, segments, and clients that enable us in the Americas to be agile and expedite the best solutions for our clients.
In the Americas specifically, we operate across 14 countries and it’s important that we have both the right existing as well as future resource and knowledge base to address the challenges of our client bases as markets, ship segments, energy and social economic policies impact their operations and future strategic direction across those countries. Looking at the future of our services across the Americas, therefore, we have recently made enhancements to how we serve and work with our client bases across the region. Outside of our core Classification business and surveyors on ships, this ranges from working with the Royal Canadian Navy to developing a Regulatory regime for Naval Safety and their shipbuilding program to developing new propulsion configurations with our GE COGES (COmbined Gas turbine Electric and Steam) Joint Industry Project for LNG and ULCS construction right across the spectrum to helping understand small scale and inland waterways LNG solutions in the Gulf, South and Central America. While the challenges may be geographically unique, and different markets may require different solutions, our aim has always been to provide solutions and aid decision making for our industry.
ML: What are the biggest challenges faced by vessel operators today? Complying with stricter environmental regulations? Cybersecurity? Crew training?
MD: As you know these are very interesting times for the Marine Industry as a whole and inherent stakeholders there-in. Interestingly with the downturn in many sectors, we are seeing the emergence of an industry that, while remaining the enabler of world trade, is more open to drive innovation, offering interesting, dynamic technical solutions and careers as we search for answers to questions about the future of Marine and Offshore. The solutions to many of the challenges faced by owners today are also increasingly coming from other industries or providers not traditionally known within Marine. Aside from the ongoing regulatory changes, we are working with many owner/operators and shipyards across the world in so many areas. Sensors, data and robotics could drive safer, autonomous operations and surveys; new fuels are going to emerge to help lower greenhouse gases as well as improve local air emissions; new software tools will be developed to improve vessel design and safety oversight while also optimizing performance outcomes; and a new cyber enabled shipping that will see the development of things that we can’t predict and possibly lead to a significant and exponential disruption in the industry. We are also seeing the increasing challenge of obsolesce in newer and newer assets as well as a shift in firstly attracting then maintaining and training next generation crews.
These are very technological, challenging yet interesting and visionary times for Marine and Offshore.
ML: How do you see class evolving over the next decade? What challenges does your organization face in the years ahead?
MD: The role and place of Class societies has markedly changed over the last decade and looking forward the pace of industry change and technological advancement means we are already scenario planning for what may be needed in the next decades. It’s critical we understand and address these changes not only in terms of future core surveying capabilities and technologies but importantly to remain relevant and agile in maintaining our technology leadership and aims as an industry advisor. We often say “We are our people” and as someone who’s worked across the globe I have seen first-hand the breadth of our global knowledge base, connection and industry expectations. Ensuring we adapt to these changing needs is vital as well as ensuring we continue to invest either time or capital in understanding and shaping technology impacts to our own business with the agility to redefine what we do. To this aim we’ve working closer with industry visionaries many of whom reside in the Americas both historical marine companies but increasingly from outside of Marine. Real world solutions to industry challenges such as our joint venture project with Siemens, Dresser-Rand, Waller Marine and Conrad are examples of greater cross-industry collaboration in meeting tomorrow’s challenges.
Tucked away in southwestern Finland is Salo, a town of about 50,000, where 40 percent of all the doors for large cruise ships are produced. Antti Marine’s production facility in Salo has produced a quarter of a million doors for 300 cruise ships in just over 20 years. It takes about 10 weeks to produce a typical order of 3,000 doors. They are supplied over a period of six months, as and when the ship’s cabins are built
“We are devoted to lean thinking,” says Commercial Director Markko Takkinen. “The production time of the doors is short, as we do not want them remain in storage here.”
Antti Marine specializes in what it calls ‘“tailored mass production”—necessary because on one cruise ship there may be 150 different types of doors.
Antti Marine is not the only Finnish marine company that benefits from many of the world’s large cruise ship fleet being built in Finland.
Cruise ships also have a lot of toilets and a need for a lot of waste management systems. Finnish headquartered Evac Group has just received its biggest cruise vessel contract ever: total waste management systems for four large cruise ships plus an option to outfit an additional six vessels. The initial four-vessel contract is valued at about EURO 30 million.
Each ship will have an Evac Cleansea wastewater treatment plan, allowing operation in Environmentally Sensitive Sea Areas (ESSAs) and Special Areas (SAs), dry and wet waste treatment systems, a bio sludge treatment unit, plus vacuum collecting systems and some 3,000 vacuum toilets.
Evac also supplies its products to a wide range of users ashore and afloat. So, too, does fire protection specialist Marioff Corporation Oy, but its roots are in the marine market and it last year launched a new generation Hi-Fog 3000 sprinkler series for marine applications that replaces earlier Hi-Fog 1000 and Hi-Fog 2000 sprinkler series.
“With the launch of this new generation of Hi-Fog 3000 sprinklers, we are offering to our marine customers enhanced Hi-Fog systems with faster activation, more efficient suppression and improved passenger and crew safety,” says John Hemgård, Director of Marine Business, Marioff Corporation Oy.
The Hi-Fog 3000 sprinkler series is designed, tested and type approved according to IMO Res.A800(19) as amended in IMO Res.MSC.265(84).
Another Finnish product that really took off after its widespread adoption is ABB’s Azipod. It’s become the propulsor of choice for cruise ships and ABB is currently delivering the complete electrical power plant and propulsion systems for two new 3,300 passenger cruise ships building at Germany’s Meyer Werft. The 20.5 MW Azipod XO propulsion unit for the first of the ships recently left the ABB factory in Helsinki.
ABB has delivered, or has on order, Azipod propulsion units for about 200 vessels
Each Azipod propulsion unit takes about two months for technicians to assemble at ABB’s Vuosaari plant. Across town at ABB’s Helsinki motors, generators and drives factory, the powerful synchronous motors at the system’s core take shape over six months.
COOPERATION AMONG STAKEHOLDERS
The major driver for marine engine designers is bringing engines into compliance with emissions requirements while keeping fuel consumption and maintenance costs under control.
A new pressurized EGR (exhaust gas recovery) economizer from Alfa Laval shows how Scandinavian maritime innovation often results from a cooperation between suppliers, university departments and shipowners. It also illustrates that, for some ships, EGR may be a better means of coming into compliance with new NOx limits than the better known SCR (selective catalytic reduction).
In a project supported by the Danish Energy-Technological Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP) and developed in cooperation with Aalborg University, the EGR economizer has been rigorously tested aboard the containership Maersk Cardiff.
“As a front-runner in the pursuit of green technologies, we were keen to see what the Aalborg EGR-HPE could do,” says Ole Christensen, Senior Machinery Specialist at A.P. Moller-Maersk. “But while we were enthusiastic about the boiler’s potential, we were also somewhat uncertain as how it would handle the physical realities of EGR. The temperatures are twice as high as those of traditional waste heat recovery, and the gas pressures are far greater.”
Those concerns disappeared when the boiler was brought online with the Maersk Cardiff’s two-stroke MAN B&W 6S80ME-C9 engine in November 2014. “Not only did the boiler survive,” says Christensen, “[but also] the results we have seen during testing are very promising.”
“EGR provides Tier III NOx compliance with a very compact footprint, but compliance itself is only part of the full potential,” says John Pedersen, Business Manager, Boilers, Combustion & Heaters at Alfa Laval. “Working closely with MAN Diesel & Turbo to optimize the EGR technology, we saw additional opportunities through our expertise in marine boilers.”
In the EGR process, around 30% of the exhaust gas is directed back into the engine, which reduces the combustion temperature and thus the production of NOx. Since only the remaining 70% of the gas reaches the traditional exhaust gas boiler after the turbocharger, waste heat recovery is reduced by 30% as well.
The Aalborg EGR-HPE is a revolutionary new economizer enclosed in a pressure casing that is placed in-line ahead of the pre-scrubber sprayers in the EGR circuit.
“By moving the break point for waste heat recovery from a medium engine load down to a low load, the Aalborg EGR-HPE enables even slower steaming,” says Pedersen. “That means fuel savings that quickly pay back the economizer, offset the EGR investment and lower CO2 emissions on top of the NOx reduction.”
Positioned ahead of the pre-scrubber spray jets, the Aalborg EGR-HPE has access to much higher temperatures than traditional exhaust gas boilers. It is integrated with the conventional waste heat recovery after the turbocharger by its steam drum, which is shared with the traditional exhaust gas boiler. With the output of the traditional economizer feeding into the shared drum, the Aalborg EGR-HPE produces extremely high-quality steam with a temperature of just above 400°C, bringing the waste heat recovery system to a much higher level of efficiency.
Using the Aalborg EGR-HPE in an integrated system allows waste heat recovery to occur at lower main engine loads than possible with a traditional waste heat recovery system in Tier III operation. This creates the possibility of even slower steaming.
“The EGR economizer makes waste heat recovery beneficial at far lower engine loads, down to around 30%” says Pedersen. “This means that vessels can steam even slower, with huge fuel savings as a result.”
B&W in MAN-B&W stands for Burmeister & Wain and the Burmeister & Wain shipyard in Copenhagen built the Selandia, the world’s first successful diesel-powered oceangoing ship. That was in 1912.
More than a century later MAN Diesel & Turbo in Copenhagen is still on the cutting edge of diesel innovation.
One beneficiary of this is TOTE Maritime which opted for MAN Diesel & Turbo dual fuel technology for its two new Marlin Class, Jones Act containerships. Both of these ships have been delivered for operation between the U.S. and Puerto Rico, burning LNG as fuel and thereby meeting all U.S. SECA emissions requirement. Each is powered by the world’s first dual-fuel slow-speed engine, an MAN-B&W 8L70ME-GI, built in Korea by licensee Doosan Engine.
The technology in the ME-GI engines wasn’t just pulled out of a hat. It is a natural development of the MAN B&W low speed electronically controlled ME family of engines. The first testing of the GI principles was carried out in 1987 and MAN Diesel
& Turbo introduced its first two-stroke ME-GI dual fuel engine series in 2011, adding the ME-LGI engine series (which can burn liquid fuels such as methanol and ethanol) in 2013.
In theory, any ME engine can be converted into an ME-GI engine, but to be recognized by a classification society as “LNG ready” an ME engine equipped newbuild will have to be designed with provision for such things as the necessary LNG fuel tanks, piping and other ancillaries.
MEDIUM SPEEDS, TOO
LNG fueling has also proved an attraction for many operators of vessels with medium speed diesels who have to operate in emissions control area.
That trend sees Wärtsilä set to deliver the 100th Wärtsilä 34DF dual-fuel marine engine from the factory in early 2016. It is part of an order for three new large escort tugs under construction for Norwegian operator Østensjø Rederi by Spanish shipbuilder Astilleros Gondan. The tugs will operate at Statoil’s Melkøya terminal near Hammerfest in Norway.
“These 100 engines do not include those delivered for land-based energy generation applications,” says Lars Anderson, Vice President, Wärtsilä Marine Solutions.
“Within its power range, the Wärtsilä 34DF has become the workhorse of the marine industry, thanks to its superior reliability and lower operating costs. It is a highly efficient engine that is also making a notable contribution to environmental compliance,”
The Wärtsilä 34DF dual-fuel engine was upgraded in 2013 with a higher MCR (maximum continuous rating) and better efficiency than its earlier version, the first of which was delivered in 2010. The upgraded version has a power output range from 3,000 to 10,000 kW at 500 kW per cylinder.
ELIMINATE THE ENGINE?
Of course, if you can eliminate the engine and switch to battery power, that gets rid of emissions issues entirely. One area where this could be possible is in certain short range ferry operations and we have already noted the E-ferry way project under way in Denmark at Søby Værft AS.
Wärtsilä, too, is eyeing this niche. In January it launched a concept for a series of zero or low emission shuttle ferries. The concept has been developed in line with new Norwegian environmental regulations for ferries, and Wärtsilä says this regulatory trend is also evident in other countries.
The ferries are designed to run entirely on batteries or in a battery-engine hybrid configuration where the fuel options are liquefied natural gas (LNG) or biofuel.
In plug-in operation, the fuel consumption is reduced by 100 percent compared to conventional installations, and all local emissions are completely eliminated. With the plug-in hybrid configuration, emissions are reduced by up to 50 percent.
The concept features Wärtsilä’s new wireless inductive charging system, which offers major benefits for typical shuttle ferry operations involving 20,000 or more departures a year because of its time and energy savings. The system eliminates physical cable connections, thus reducing wear and tear and enabling charging to begin immediately when the vessel arrives at quay.
Wärtsilä has now signed an agreement with Cavotec SA to jointly develop a combined induction charging and automatic mooring concept. It would incorporate Wärtsilä’s wireless induction power transfer into a vacuum-based automated mooring technology in which remote controlled vacuum pads recessed into, or mounted on the quayside, moor and release vessels in seconds.
FILTER PROMISES TO CUT NOX
The Exilator, an environmental filter for smaller ships, able to reduce both sulfur, carbon monoxide, NOx and noise, has been successfully tested on a Danish Maritime Authority ship. The technology has been testing over a 12-month project phase followed by a three-month practical test of the concept on the Danish Maritime Authority’s ship Poul Løwenørn. The filter’s performance has been documented by the Danish Technological Institute, and the installation and mounting of the filter has been approved by LR.
The filter has been designed for ships with engines of up to 6 MW. Current regulations don’t require the cleaning of exhaust gas from smaller ships if they already sail on marine diesel with a maximum sulfur content of 0.1%. Still, developer Exilator ApS
believes that there is already a market for the filter, as it reduces soot pollution and NOx on the ship itself and also cuts engine noise considerably — particularly attractive in the yachting sector, or expedition vessels sailing in very sensitive nature areas.
According to the test from the Danish Technological Institute, the filter reduces soot particle emissions by 99,1%, carbon monoxide by 98% and NOx by 11%. Though those tests didn’t cover the filter’s noise reduction properties but the company expects a noise reduction up to 35 dB, including low frequency noise.
Financing for development and testing was secured through the Danish Growth Fund and investment & development company CapNova.
The filter works by catalytically incinerated the soot in the exhaust as soon the ship’s engines reach exhaust temperatures above 325 degrees C. Ash is accumulated in the filter, which means that the filters must be cleaned after about 5,000 operational hours, as part of the recycling process.
The filter requires that the ship uses marine gas oil with a maximum sulfur content of 0.1%. According the test, the filter improves the ship’s fuel consumption by around 1%.
The exhaust gas, after passing through the turbo charger, goes to a muffler that removes the deep resonance. Then comes the particle filter, which also serves as an oxidation catalyst, where the soot is captured and burned – and finally the gas is led through a reducing catalyst, which minimizes NOx and NO2, before being emitted into the atmosphere.
Development is now underway in a collaboration with DTU, the Technological Institute and an engine manufacturer aimed at increasing the filter’s NOx reduction from 11% to 40% in phase 1, and to 80% in the subsequent phase 2. When this is achieved, the filter will enable compliance with IMO Tier III NOx limits.
Shipowners face no shortage of options if they decide to use exhaust gas scrubbers to cut sulfur emissions. Recent customers for Alfa Laval’s PureSOx exhaust gas cleaning systems include Buss Shipping, which is retrofitting hybrid PureSOx systems on two 1,025 TEU container feeder ships that operate exclusively in Emission Control Areas (ECAs). Since they frequent the low-alkalinity waters between Rotterdam and St. Petersburg, as well as ports like Hamburg with zero-discharge requirements, a scrubber with closed-loop mode was a necessity.
Each ship will receive a hybrid PureSOx system with multiple inlets, connecting the main engine and two auxiliary engines to one U-design scrubber. In contrast to earlier systems with multiple inlets, the inlets will now lead into a single scrubber jet section – an advance in construction that will make the scrubber even more compact.
“The PureSOx solution was well engineered and allowed a sophisticated integration of the scrubber system into our container feeder ships,” says Christoph Meier, Project Manager, Buss Shipping. “The custom construction let us avoid major modifications inside the vessel, which together with the pre-outfitting gave us a short installation time. All those factors contributed to a competitive price.”
Though there’s no doubt that scrubbers work, they also involve a substantial investment. That led Finland’s family-owned Langh Ship to develop a scrubber of its own, the decision was made a little easier by the fact that another family-owned company has 40 years’ experience in cleaning washing waters.
The resulting product was successfully tested over an extended period on one of Langth’s own ships, the M/S Laura, and received final class approval from GL in August 2014. All of Langh’s five vessels have now been fitted with the scrubber and last year a hybrid version was installed on Bore Shipping’s M/V Bore Song.
“It has lived up to our expectations: minimum sludge handling, very clean outgoing water and in that respect minimum impact on the environment,” said Jörgen Mansnerus, VP, Marine Management at Bore Ltd.
Scrubbers could become less expensive as the result of a pilot project developed by Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) researchers Carlos Dorao and Maria Fernandino.
Called the Lynx Separator, the technology now being examined for possible use in marine exhaust gas scrubbers was originally developed for use in the natural gas industry and involves using a steel sponge along with centrifugal force to remove the fluid from a gas stream, offering a brand new solution for the gas industry.
In the Lynx Separator, wet gas flows through the separator. A tubular metal sponge spins rapidly so the liquid is separated from the gas and thrown to the side and down, allowing dry gas to stream up to where it’s needed.
The Research Council of Norway’s Innovation Program MAROFF (Maritime activities and offshore operations) has now funded a pilot project to examine the possibility of applying the separator technology to cleaning ships’ exhaust emissions from ships andetheoretical calculations and testing show promising results
BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Another major focus of compliance concern for shipowners is, of course, ballast water management. Needless to say, most of the major players in the Scandinavian marine equipment sectors have horses in this race. It’s just to soon to pick any winners given the fact that no system has yet gained full U.S. Type Approval.
As this was written, Norway’s Optimarin was claiming to be on the brink of the coveted approval and was pleased when the U.S. Coast Guard told manufacturers of ultraviolet (UV) based BWMS that it will not accept the Most Probable Number (MPN) testing method in its approval process. The MPN methodology evaluates organisms on the basis of “viable/unviable,” with most UV systems depositing “unviable” organisms back into the water – meaning they are still alive but cannot reproduce. The USCG said that the FDA/CMFDA test, which judges life forms as “living/dead,” must be the standard for approval.
Optimarin says the decision is good news.
The Coast Guard has told UV system manufacturers that it will not accept the Most Probable Number (MPN) testing method in its approval process. The MPN methodology evaluates organisms on the basis of “viable/unviable,” with most UV systems depositing “unviable” organisms back into the water – meaning they are still alive but cannot reproduce.
“This is a clear indication to the industry that USCG wants absolute certainty with regard to standards – they do not want living organisms deposited in their territory,” comments Tore Andersen, Optimarin’s CEO. “MPN is acceptable for IMO, but that won’t be any consolation to shipowners with global fleets that want the flexibility of sailing in and out of U.S. waters.”
He says that Optimarin, which has over 20 years of industry experience and installed the world’s first commercial BWT system in 2000, is the only UV manufacturer that is currently within “touching distance” of USCG approval.
Its technology successfully satisied the FDA/CFMDA criteria during testing last year. Further tests in other water salinities are scheduled for spring 2016, after which point approval is expected later this year.
Andersen says the system’s power is the key to its efficacy. “Each of our system lamps has a 35 kW capacity, which is huge for a UV system. That power instantly kills invasive organisms and that’s exactly what USCG wants to see,” he says
1. ISLA BELLA, WORLD’S FIRST LNG-FUELED CONTAINERSHIP (pictured above)
TOTE Maritime’s 3,100-TEU containership Isla Bella was due to set sail for San Juan, PR, on November 24, marking the first time a ship in a Jones Act liner service will burn Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a marine fuel. When the 764-foot-long Isla Bella transited the Panama Canal back on October 30 on her way to the Port of Jacksonville, Panama Canal Administrator/CEO Jorge L. Quijano called her “a true engineering feat.”
Among the principal maritime stakeholders involved in the successful launch of the Isla Bella and her sister Perla del Caribe are: owner and operator TOTE, shipbuilder General Dynamics NASSCO, designer DSEC (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering’s ship design arm), engine licensee MAN Diesel & Turbo, classification society ABS, and regulator U.S. Coast Guard.
The two Marlin Class containerships were contracted by TOTE in December 2012 and are being built at a total cost of about $375 million.
The 764-ft Isla Bella is equipped with the world’s first dual-fuel slow-speed engine, an 8L70ME-GI built by Korea’s Doosan Engine, under license from MAN Diesel & Turbo. With a 3,100 TEU capacity, the LNG-powered Isla Bella reduces NOx emissions by 98 percent, SOx emissions by 97 percent and CO2 emissions by 76 percent. The technology makes the ship one of the world’s most environmentally friendly containerships afloat.
During LNG will allow the Marlin Class Isla Bella to be fully compliant with strict emissions regulations while operating in both the North American Emissions Control Area and the U.S. Caribbean ECA.
At the time of her delivery, Kevin Graney, Vice President and General Manager of General Dynamics NASSCO, said, “Successfully building and delivering the world’s first LNG-powered containership here in the United States for coastwise service demonstrates that commercial shipbuilders, and owners and operators, are leading the world in the introduction of cutting-edge, green technology in support of the Jones Act.”
The moment is bittersweet for TOTE as it unfolds within the shadow of the tragic loss of the SS El Faro with all hands aboard during Hurricane Joaquin on October 1. The ship’s crew of 28 and five Polish nationals onboard were lost. The U.S. Navy, working with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), has located the ship in waters 15,000 feet deep near the Crooked Island in the Bahamas.
The Isla Bella will be joined by the Perla del Caribe in Puerto Rico cargo service in the first quarter of 2016.
2. OHIO, LNG-READY PRODUCT TANKER
The 330,000 bbl Ohio was became the first product tanker to be built with the future consideration for the future use of LNG as fuel when it was delivered earlier this year to Crowley Maritime Corp. by Aker Philadelphia Shipyard, Philadelphia, PA.
The Ohio received American Bureau of Shipping’s (ABS) LNG-Ready Level 1 approval, meaning Crowley has the option to convert the tanker to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) propulsion in the future.
The Ohio along with her three ships being built at Aker Philadelphia are based on a proven Hyundai Mipo Dockyards (HMD) design which incorporates numerous fuel efficiency features, flexible cargo capability, and a slow-speed diesel engine built under license from MAN Diesel & Turbo. The 600 feet long Ohio is capable of carrying crude oil or refined petroleum products.
Crowley’s Seattle-based, naval architecture and marine engineering subsidiary Jensen Maritime is providing construction management services for the product tankers. Jensen now has an on-site office and personnel at the Philadelphia shipyard to ensure strong working relationships with shipyard staff and a seamless construction and delivery program.
“We are excited to offer our customers cutting-edge technology available in these new tankers, which not only embraces operational excellence and top safety, but also offers the potential to be powered by environmentally friendly LNG in the future,” said Crowley’s Rob Grune, senior vice president and general manager, petroleum and chemical transportation. “Adding these new Jones Act tankers to our fleet allows us to continue providing our customers with diverse and modern equipment to transport their petroleum and chemical products in a safe and reliable manner.”
3. NEW MINI TANKER FOR NY HARBOR
Blount Boats, Inc., Warren, RI, delivered the Chandra B, a new mini-tanker for American Petroleum & Transport, Inc., Miller Place, NY. The 79 ft by 23 ft, double-hull bunkering tanker operates in New York Harbor and New Jersey supplying fuel to ferries, dinner boats, dredges, and other vessels.
Propulsion power for the tanker is supplied by two EPA Tier 3-compliant Cummins Model QSL9, six-cylinder diesel engines rated at 330 hp at 1,800 rev/min with ZF Model W325 marine hydraulic gears that will have 4.91:1 reduction ratio. The self-propelled Chandra B is equipped with a 50 hp Wesmar hydraulic bow thruster, providing it with enhanced maneuverability.
Designed by Farrell & Norton Naval Architects, Newcastle, ME, the Chandra B is built to USCG Subchapter “D” specifications and is less than 100 gross tons. Farrell & Norton also designed one of the tank barges in American Petroleum & Transport’s fleet. The double-hull Chandra B will replace the 1979-built single hull Capt. Log in American Petroleum & Transport’s fleet.
American Petroleum & Transport (APT) has had to retire all of its single-hull tankers because of OPA 90 regulations.
APT vessels crisscross New York Harbor delivering ultra low sulfur diesel to clients such as Circle Line, New York Water Taxi, Great Lakes Dredge & Dock, and Sterling Equipment, as well as for the auxiliary engines of larger ships. The Chandra B has cargo fuel tankage is designed to hold a capacity of 56,450 gallons.
4. SAKIGAKE, JAPAN’S FIRST LNG-POWERED TUG
This past year, NYK took delivery of Sakigake, Japan’s first LNG fueled tug. Built at NYK’s wholly owned subsidiary Keihin Dock Co’s Oppama shipyard, the 37.2 m x 10.2 m Sakigake is operated by Wing Maritime Service Corporation, mainly in the ports of Yokohama and Kawasaki. Wing Maritime also operates the hybrid tug Tsubasa.
The Sakigake is equipped with two Niigata 6L28AHX-DF dual-fuel engines, each developing 1,618 kW. Propulsion is supplied by two Niigata Z-Pellers.
The DF engines can burn either LNG or diesel oil. The environmental advantages of operating on LNG as compared with conventionally powered tugs that use marine diesel oil is Sakigake emits about 30 percent less CO2, 80 percent less NOx, and no SOx.
While the project posed several challenges—the relatively small size and limited amount of space on the tug, and the large variation in engine power—Keihin Dock was able to achieve the desired level of environmental performance while maintaining the same hull form and steering performance of existing tugs. Keihin Dock worked closely with both Niigata Power Systems and Air Water Plant & Engineering Inc. to develop equipment for supplying LNG.
The project was supported by subsidies from Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. ClassNK also provided joint research support.
5. JS INEOS INSIGHT, FIRST ETHANE-POWERED SHIP
Emblazoned on the JS Ineos Insight’s hull is the phrase, “Shale Gas for Manufacturing.” Built specifically to transport shale gas from the U.S. to Europe, the JS Ineos Insight is the first of eight 180m x 26.6m ethane gas carriers built by China’s Sinopacific for Denmark’s Evergas.
Named on July 14, the JS Ineos Insight can not only carry ethane, LPG or LNG, but can also burn ethane, LNG and conventional diesel in its two Wartsila 50DF dual fuel engines.
The eight Ineos ships will transport over 800,000 tons of ethane gas at -90°C per annum across the Atlantic from the U.S. to Norway and Scotland.
Classed by Bureau Veritas, the Dragon vessels were originally designed as dual-fuel LNG/diesel-powered vessels, with two 1,000 m3 LNG tanks on deck powering two Wärtsilä 6L20 DF main engines with a total output of 2,112 kW and two shaft generators with a total output of 3,600 kW power. The vessels will initially transport ethane from the U.S, to the U.K. Ineos refineries, the ability to also burn ethane was added to allow use of the cargo gas as fuel.
At the christening of the JS Ineos Insight and the JS Ineos Ingenuity, Ineos Chairman Jim Ratcliffe says, “Today is a landmark day for both Ineos and Europe. We have seen how U.S. shale gas revolutionized U.S. manufacturing and we believe these huge ships will help do the same for Europe. Ineos together with Evergas has commissioned eight brand new ships, accessed hundreds of miles of new pipeline and built two enormous terminals to get U.S. Shale gas to Europe. The scale of the whole project is truly breathtaking.”
According to Bureau Veritas Business Development Manager Martial Claudepierre, the ability to burn ethane and LNG as fuel in the Dragon Class ships “is a major step forward in the use of clean fuels.” He says that BV worked with Evergas and the Danish Maritime Authority to verify and ensure that the use of ethane is at least as safe as required by the IGC and will not impair the engine compliance with MARPOL Annex VI.
According to Claudepierre, using ethane required extra engine room ventilation and additional gas detection, plus modifications to the main engines including a lower compression ratio, different turbocharger nozzles and de-rating of the engine to cope with the lower knocking resistance of ethane. “But,” he says, “The gains in not carrying an additional fuel and in environmental performance from being able to burn clean fuel throughout the voyage are significant.”
6. MARJORIE C, NEW JONES ACT CONRO
Capable of carrying up to 1,200 cars and 1,400 TEU of containers, the Combination Container and Roll-on/Roll-Off (ConRO) vessel Marjorie C entered Jones Act service this year between the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii.
Built by VT Halter Marine, Pascagoula, MS, the Marjorie C was engineered from a proven design by Grimaldi at Croatia’s Uljanik Shipyard. The 692 ft x 106 ft ConRO has a draft of 31 ft, deadweight of 21,132.5 metric tons, with nine decks. It has a stern ramp capacity of 350 metric tons. The ship has a service speed of 21.5 knots.
The vessel’s design incorporates the highest level of operating efficiencies as well as reduced environmental impacts. The sister vessel, Jean Anne, was Pasha Hawaii’s first Jones Act vessel and has been serving the Hawaii/Mainland trade since March 2005. The Marjorie C entered into service this past May.
The ship is named in honor of Pasha Hawaii’s President and CEO George Pasha, IV’s grandmother, Marjorie Catherine Ryan.
“After more than three and a half years of planning and construction, we are pleased to unveil a ship that has been designed to not only accommodate the varying needs of our customers, but a vessel that minimizes our carbon footprint through extensive fuel consumption efficiencies and other green technologies,” said Pasha Hawaii’s President and CEO, George Pasha, IV. “With the addition of the Marjorie C we can now offer customers increased service and capacity between the West Coast and Hawaii trade lane on vessels providing superior reliability and cargo protection.”
7. NEIL ARMSTRONG, FIRST OF NEW CLASS OF RESEARCH VESSELS
This past Halloween, the first-of-class oceanographic research vessel R/V Neil Armstrong (AGOR 27) set sail from Dakota Creek Industries, Anacortes, WA, to San Francisco, CA, on its inaugural voyage. As we went to press, the Neil Armstong was waiting its turn to pass through the Panama Canal on its way north to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Woods Hole, MA. The ship will be operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution under a charter party agreement with Office of Naval Research (ONR).
Designed by Guido Perla & Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA and owned by the U.S. Navy, Neil Armstrong is 238 ft x 50 ft with a depth of 22 ft and draft of 15 ft. The first of two research vessels, the Neil Armstrong has four main 1,400 kW diesel generators, two 876 kW propulsion motors, and two controllable pitch propellers. The ship has a sustained speed of 12 knots and maximum speed of 12.8 knots.
The ship was classed by ABS Under 90 meter rules A1, Circle E, AMS, ACCU, NIBS, Ice Class D0, UWILD, 46 CFR Subchapter U, SOLAS (Oceanographic Vessels), MARPOL.
The Neil Armstrong’s sister vessel, the R/V Sally Ride (AGOR 28), is also under construction at Dakota Creek Industries.
During acceptance trials, Mike Kosar, Program Manager for the Support Ships, Boats and Craft office within the Program Executive Office (PEO), Ships, says, “The results of these tests and the outstanding fit, finish and quality of the vessel, stand as a testament to the preparation and effort of our entire shipbuilding team. It reflects the exceptionalism of AGOR 27’s namesake, Neil Armstrong.”
Neil Armstrong Class AGORS incorporate the latest technologies, including high-efficiency diesel engines, emissions controls for stack gasses, and new information technology tools both for monitoring shipboard systems and for communicating with the world. These ships will provide scientists with the tools and capabilities to support ongoing research including in the Atlantic, western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions across a wide variety of missions.
The lab areas include the main lab of 1,023 ft2, the wet area of 398 ft2, computer area of 311 ft2, and staging area bay of 303 ft2.
Neil Armstrong will be capable of assisting with integrated, interdisciplinary, general purpose oceanographic research in coastal and deep ocean areas. The vessel will operate with a crew of 20 with accommodations for 24 scientists.
8. BARZAN, FIRST OF NEW CLASS OF GAS READY BOXSHIPS
Recently named in a ceremony at shipbuilder Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries’ Mokpo, South Korea, shipyard, Barzan is the first in a series of six 18,800 TEU containerships ordered by Dubai headquartered United Arab Shipping Company (UASC). It is the first vessel to receive classification society DNV GL’s new GAS READY notation. Her five sister ships and eleven 15,000 TEU vessels of UASC’s newest eco-ship generation, will also receive the notation.
The ships have been designed and constructed to enable a quick and cost efficient retrofit to LNG fueling at a later stage. The GAS READY notation, with nominators (D, S, MEc, AEi) demonstrates that the vessel is in compliance with the gas fueled notation rules, that structural reinforcements to support the fuel containment system (LNG tank) have been verified (S), that the main engines installed can be converted to dual fuel (MEc ) and that the auxiliary engines installed can be operated on gas (AEi).
“We believe that this vessel, as well as the rest of the vessels in our new building program, demonstrates our commitment to technical innovation and eco-effectiveness,” says Jørn Hinge, President and CEO of UASC. “For UASC, achieving optimum efficiency levels is not a single initiative or project, it is a strategy and an ongoing commitment, and we will continue to work with DNV GL on the remaining newbuild vessels that have the lowest levels of CO2 output in their class.”
As well as being LNG ready, Barzan and her sister vessels incorporate several innovative energy saving methods, including a Siemens’ Siship SGM environmentally friendly drive and power generation system.
The Waste Heat Recovery System (WHRS) converts thermal energy from the exhaust gas from the main engines into electrical power to maximize the efficiency of the system.
The Barzan was expected to have an EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) value that is close to 50 per cent less than the 2025 limit set by IMO, with a CO2 output per TEU that is more than 60 per cent lower than a 13,500 TEU vessel delivered just three years ago.
Barzan has been constructed to DNV GL class rules with the notations: 1A1 Container Carrier DG-P Shore Power E0 NAUT-OC HMON (A1,C1,G4) CLEAN BWM-T BIS TMON NAUTICUS (Newbuilding) GAS READY (D, S, MEc, AEi).
9. CROWN POINT, NEW GENERATION GREEN TUG
Tidewater Transportation and Terminals, Vancouver, WA, recently took delivery of the Crown Point, the first in a series of three 102 ft x 38 ft towboats being built at Vigor Industrial in Portland, OR.
The three towboats are the first new vessels to be built for the Tidewater fleet in 30 years, and are critical for the company to meet the anticipated rising customer demand on the Columbia-Snake River system. “The launching of the Crown Point, and the forthcoming Granite Point and Ryan Point vessels, marks an important step for Tidewater,” says Marc Schwartz, Maintenance & Engineering Manager at Tidewater. The vessels will strengthen our fleet, as well as reinforce Tidewater’s commitment to our customers, community, and environment.”
Tidewater operates the largest barge transportation and terminal network on the Columbia-Snake River system. The Crown Point joins the company’s current fleet of 16 vessels and 160 barges. Tidewater transports a wide range of cargo among a network of ports, terminals and grain elevators throughout the entire Columbia-Snake River system, which stretches some 465 miles of waterways. We also operate five strategically located terminals and five pipelines with key intermodal connections to railroads, highways and other pipelines.
Designed by CT Marine, Naval Architects and Marine Engineers of Edgecomb, ME, the Crown Point is an environmentally friendly tug with EPA Tier 3 compliant diesel engines that reduce air emissions and improve fuel efficiency. Main propulsion is supplied by two Caterpillar 3516C EPA Tier 3 certified diesel engines producing 2,240 bhp, each at 1,600 rev/min. The engines drive two 92 in. x 100 in. fixed pitch, stainless steel propellers through CT28 Kort Nozzles capable of a service speed of 8 knots. Operating in the Columbia River Gorge high winds, extreme currents and swells can be considered normal piloting conditions. That’s why the Crown Pount abd her sister towboats are fitted with an enhanced steering system using four steering and four flanking rudders was designed. The towboat has a wheelhouse with exceptional all-round visibility through full height windows, leading edge navigation and communications equipment, and enhanced accommodations for the captain and crew.
“During the last year and a half, a great deal of effort went into designing, engineering and building a towboat that would meet or exceed performance parameters,” explains Bruce Reed, Tidewater COO and Vice President. “With crew endurance being a priority, we employed Noise Control Engineers, Billerica, MA to develop a sound and vibration control package for the vessel. By incorporating Christie and Grey vibration control mounts and comprehensive acoustic insulation, noise levels register at less than 60 decibels in the accommodations during vessel operation.”
Other equipment onboard the Crown Point includes two C7.1, Tier 3 generators, rated at 480v, 200 kW at 1,800 rev/min. The generators are controlled through an automatic transfer system that ensures the vessel will recover from a generator power loss in less than 30 seconds. Deck machinery includes seven Patterson WWP 65E-7.5, 65-ton electric deck winches, with pilothouse remote operation and local push button control stations on the main deck. Each winch has Samson 1 3/8” Turbo 75 Synthetic Line.
In order to use the newest technology and minimize power usage, variable frequency drives were used in all major rotating machinery applications and LED lighting was employed in both interior and exterior lighting applications. The vessel is fitted with a Kidde NOVEC 1230 fire suppression system. Centralized fire detection and alarms cover both the machinery spaces and accommodations.
10. MULTRATUG 28, A HYBRID TUG
This past year, Netherlands-based towage and salvage specialist Multraship took delivery of Multratug 28, a Damen ASD 2810 Hybrid tug built at Damen Shipyards Galaţi, in Romania, as part of a fleet expansion program.
Classed by Lloyd’s Register, the hybrid Multratug 28 is 28.67m x 10.43m, with a maximum draft of 4.9m. The propulsion system includes two MTU 16V4000M63R diesel engines with one MTU 12V 2000 M41B propulsion genset of 800 kvA, 440V-60Hz. The battery pack are two 120 kWh. Two Rolls Royce US205 azimuth thrusters provide propulsion. The tug has a bollard pull of 62 tons, diesel direct speed of 13 knots, diesel electric speed of 8 knots, and battery pack speed of 4 knots.
The ASD 2810 HYBRID is developed to save fuel by 30% and to reduce emissions by 50%. To achieve this the vessel is provided with a propulsion system that can operate diesel-direct, diesel-electric or fully-electric. Fully-electric sailing on the batteries, with zero emissions and extremely low noise levels, is possible for time periods of up to one hour at a speed of 4 knots.
In June 2014, the first Damen ASD 2810 Hybrid was delivered to Iskes Towage & Salvage. Being green does not mean sacrificing power, the Bernardus still has a bollard pull of 60 tonnes. The Bernardus operates in the Port of IJmuiden near Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
“This hybrid tug is a unique concept,” says Dinu Berariu, Project Manager at Damen Shipyards Galaţi. “It features a diesel-direct, diesel-electric and battery powered propulsion system. This hybrid configuration will enable Multraship to lower fuel costs by up to 30 percent and emissions by up to 60 percent.”
Headquartered in the harbor city of Terneuzen, Multraship operates in the ports around the Scheldt estuary, in Zeeland seaports and the Belgian ports of Ghent and Antwerp, as well as the Bulgarian port of Burgas on the Black Sea.
Multraship’s fleet expansion program stems from its increasing customer base in the offshore sectors as well as growing demand for harbor towage services.
11. VASCO DE GAMA, FIRST 18,000 TEU BOX SHIP FROM A CHINESE YARD
As we went to press, the world’s third largest containership company, CMA CGM Group, Marseilles, France, was closing in on the acquisition of Singapore-based NOL, the world’s fourth largest. It successful, privately held CMA CGM would leapfrog over MSC to become number two in the world.
A big part of CMA CGM’s success is its investments in larger, more energy efficient tonnage to improve pricing and economies of scale. An excellent example is the CMA CGM Vasco De Gama delivered this summer to CMA CGM by China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC).
With a length of 399 m and breadth of 54 m, the 18,000 TEU vessel is the largest containership in the CMA CGM Group and is the first 18,000 TEU containership to be built by a Chinese shipyard. CSSC is also building two more of the giant box ships, the CMA CGM Zheng He and CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin.
Flying the U.K. flag, CMA CGM Vasco De Gama is equipped with the latest environmental technologies including a latest generation main engine, a twisted leading edge rudder with bulb from Germany’s Becker Marine Systems and an optimized hull design. These innovations decrease the vessel’s CO2 emissions by 10% compared to the previous vessel generation. With an estimated emission of 37g of CO2/km for each container carried, the giant containership provides one of the world’s greenest goods transportation options.
The ship’s environmental footprint meets the 2025 energy efficiency regulations.
CMA CGM Vasco De Gama calls at 11 different countries on CMA CGM Group’s French Asia Line (FAL) service between Europe and Asia.
CMA CGM is also building three 20,600 TEU containerships—the largest yet built—at Korea’s Hanjin Heavy Industries. Those three ships will each have full spade twisted rudders (TLKSR) from Becker Marine Systems and Becker Twisted Fins. Both Becker products will make a significant contribution to the vessel’s efficiency improvement.
12. ESVAGT FROUDE, SPECIALIZED WIND FARM VESSEL
As of September this past year, Denmark’s ESVAGT had new owners; 3i Infrastructure and AMP Capital acquired the shares of A.P. Møller-Maersk Group and ESE-Holding. While ESVAGT’s primary market will continue to be oil and gas support and standby rescue in the North Sea, the company is broadening its portfolio with a push into the offshore wind energy market.
This past summer, ESVAGT entered the offshore wind industry with the christening of the world’s first purpose-built Service Operation Vessels at Siemens AG in Rostock and Hamburg, Germany.
The Service Operation Vessels (SOV), Esvagt Froude and Esvagt Faraday are each 83.7m x 17.6m, with a draft of 6.5m. Both of the Danish-flag SOVs were built in Norway by Havyard Ship Technology and are based on a Havyard 832 SOV design. The SOVs both have diesel-electric propulsion and DC power systems, enabling optimized fuel and energy efficiency and crew comfort. The service speed is 14 knots.
The SOVs are essentially “service stations at sea,” offering technicians a safe, efficient platform for wind turbine maintenance. Using the ship’s DP system, the ship can connect to wind turbines via its Ampelmann A-type Walk-to-work hydraulic gangway system offering a stable, safe platform to connect to the wind turbine.
Each offers accommodations for 60 people. The vessels are designed to reduce the level of vibration and increase the level of comfort for everyone onboard.
“As a supplement to the “Walk-to-Work” gangway, we have equipped the Service Operation Vessels with the newly developed ESVAGT Safe Transfer Boats (STB 7 and STB 12),” says Søren Nørgaard Thomsen, Managing Director for ESVAGT. “They are designed in-house based on more than 20 years of experience in boat development and more than 100,000 boat transfers. These boats will in a safe manner provide the industry with additional efficiencies and cost reductions.”
Each of the ships carry ESVAGT STB 7B Safe Transfer Boat, ESVAGT STB 12A Safe Transport Boat, ESVAGT FRB 15C Fast Rescue Boat.
A third ESVAGT SOV is on order and under construction at Havyard for delivery in 2016. The third ESVAGT SOV will service the 400 MW Dudgeon Wind Farm off the East Coast of England in the fall of 2016.
The team, led by Siemens Drilling and Marine, Dresser-Rand and Lloyd’s Register, aims to provide an end-to-end solution, encompassing the entire supply chain, that will remove obstacles that can hold back wide-spread adoption of natural gas as the marine fuel of choice.
“Our integrated solution, encompassing the entire supply chain of LNG including gas-fueled marine propulsion systems, will remove the chicken-and-egg hurdle from the LNG-equation,” says David Grucza, Siemens Drilling and Marine. “This is a disruptive concept for the maritime industry, and the technology exists for immediate adoption. This joint solution is not limited geographically, and we stand ready to support the marine industry globally, although our initial focus is on deploying U.S. shale gas.”
The initial end-to-end solution offered to the North American inland and coastal waterways community comprises the following elements
- LNGo liquefaction barge;
- LNG bunkering barge (C-Type tanks with up to 2,500 cu.m capacity); and
- 4,200 or higher horsepower river pushboat.
It has been designed and engineered by Waller Marine Inc. (WMI) and the Shearer Group Inc. (TSGI), respectively, and will be constructed by Conrad Industries shipyard in Texas.
“Together, the team brings a holistic answer to the LNG marine fuel question of what comes first – the bunkering station or the engine?” says David Waller, President, Waller Marine, Inc. “The innovative solution to this industry hurdle includes the entire supply chain from liquefaction, LNG bunkering and design, all while meeting EPA and USCG compliance and providing smart, sustainable, lower greenhouse gas alternative fuels to operators.”
“Lloyd’s Register is well placed to support a new fleet of gas-fueled ships – and help them to operate safely and efficiently,” says Mark Darley, Americas Regional Marine Manager and President of Lloyd’s Register North America (LRNA). “Our expertise and leadership in gas technology and operations – from gas carriers to LNG bunkering and gas as a marine fuel – helps lead to the best decisions based on the best, independent, technical insight.”
Lloyd’s Register has established clear standards describing different levels of readiness to use natural gas as a marine fuel. Lloyd’s Register also provides training on the key practical aspects of modern LNG carriage by sea and risk management services to support safe LNG bunkering.
Siemens AG (Berlin and Munich) is active in more than 200 countries, focusing on the areas of electrification, automation and digitalization. One of the world’s largest producers of energy-efficient, resource-saving technologies, Siemens is No. 1 in offshore wind turbine construction, a leading supplier of gas and steam turbines for power generation, a major provider of power transmission solutions and a pioneer in infrastructure solutions.
Dresser-Rand, a Siemens Business, is among the largest suppliers of rotating equipment solutions to the worldwide oil, gas, petrochemical, and process industries.
Lloyd’s Register (LR) is the leading classification society in the gas carrier market – both for LNG and LPG – and is also taking a leadership role in the international development of gas as a marine fuel.
Waller Marine, Inc. is a global leader in the design of Floating Gas to Liquids (GTL), Floating Power Generation and Floating Liquefaction (LNG) and is is a licensed engineering firm with EPC capabilities.
Conrad Industries Inc. specializes in the construction, conversion and repair of a wide variety of marine vessels for commercial and governmental customers and the fabrication of modular components of offshore drilling rigs and floating, production, storage and offloading vessels.It has been awarded a contract to build a 2,200 cu.m. LNG bunkering barge — the first in the U.S.
The Shearer Group, Inc., founded in 2010, provides naval architecture, marine engineering, marine surveying and professional engineer services to clients in the inland and offshore marine industries.
As the 1991-built RO/RO ferry, the Pride of Canterbury, was approaching Calais, says MAIB, it became apparent that the starboard controllable pitch propeller was not responding, so the starboard shaft was declutched and the two starboard main engines were stopped.
Prevailing weather conditions were such that the master was content to proceed using one shaft and one bow thruster. As the ship approached its berth, a pipework joint in the starboard controllable pitch propeller system ruptured, spraying oil on to the exhaust uptakes, starting a fire.
The main engine room was evacuated, the general emergency alarm was sounded and the passengers were mustered at emergency stations. The ferry berthed safely, the fire was extinguished using the ship’s Hi-fog system and a fire hose, and the passengers and cargo were disembarked normally.
The investigation determined that the back pressure valve in the starboard controllable pitch propeller hydraulic system had jammed shut, resulting in the return line oil pressure rising to the point where a flanged pipework joint failed. The failed joint, along with others in the system, was not shielded to prevent a spray of oil in the event of joint failure. The back pressure valve was found to be worn and had not been tested for functionality during its 23 years of service.
Safety issues emerging from the incident were:
- The potential for the whole controllable pitch propeller hydraulic system to experience high pressure had not been adequately considered.
- The method for annually testing the controllable pitch propeller system’s back pressure and safety relief valves was not specified.
- The lack of a high pressure alarm prevented immediate awareness of high pressure in the system.
- An effective joint shield could have prevented the spray of oil onto the hot engine uptake.
- The storage of combustible materials near the two main engines allowed the fire to spread.
P&O Ferries has completed a program of modifications to Pride of Canterbury and its three sister ships as they attend refit.
The CPP system was designed and manufactured by LIPS, which became part of Wartsila in 2002. Wartsila has issued a technical bulletin specifying back pressure valves should be replaced after 15 years and the vessel’s classification society, Lloyd’s Register, has been recommended to propose to the International Association of Classification Societies a unified requirement for high pressure alarms to be fitted in controllable pitch propeller systems.
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The partners in the study — LNG containment system specialist GTT, containership operator CMA CGM (and its subsidiary CMA Ships) and classification society DNV GL — say the concept that has the potential to offer a more efficient, more flexible and greener box ship design than current 20,000 TEU two-stroke diesel engine driven ultra large container vessels.
They have dubbed the vessel the “Piston Engine Room Free Efficient Containership” (PERFECt).
Essentially, the concept ship takes advantage of the flexibility of electric drive to use space previously occupied by the main to carry cargo, more than offsetting the extra volume required by the LNG fuel tanks in comparison with conventional HFO tanks.
A comprehensive analysis with the DNV GL COSSMOS tool simulated components of the power production and propulsion system to analyze the COGAS system, making it possible to get detailed data for the calculation of the overall fuel efficiency for a complete round voyage.
Using a global FEM analysis, the project partners also evaluated the impact of the changes that were made to the general arrangement.
The two 10,960 cu.m LNG fuel tanks are located below the deck house, giving the vessel enough fuel capacity for an Asia/Europe round trip.
With the gas and steam turbines integrated at deck level within the same deck house as the tanks, space normally occupied by the conventional engine room can be used to increase cargo capacity significantly.
The dissociation of electric power generation from electric propulsion allows the electric power plant to be moved away from the main propulsion system, giving a great deal of flexibility. In fact, say the partners “an engine room is not needed any more.”
The three electric main motors, which are arranged on one common shaft, can be run fully independently of each other providing increased redundancy and reliability and a high level of safety.
With gas turbine-driven power production utilizing a very clean fuel as well as electric propulsion, the ship’s machinery systems will be simplified and more robust. This approach is also expected to lead to new maintenance strategies, already common practice in aviation, that would enable shipping companies to reduce the ship’s engine crew and save costs.
The study also suggests that optimizing the power plant through minimizing the steam turbine size, reducing power capacities, condenser cooling, and using a two-stage pressure steam turbine and steam generator will increase the system’s efficiency further. The next phase of the study aims to optimize the propulsion system and ship design to attain even greater efficiency and increased cargo capacity.
THE PRICE TAG
As part of the analysis, costs for additional and reduced systems to the base case ship (CMA CGM’s 20,000 TEU Marco Polo) were considered.Additional costs included:
- membrane tanks,
- gas and steam turbines,
- fuel gas handling, and
- structural reinforcements (needed as there is no aft engine casing).
Costs that could be eliminated or reduced in compared to the two-stroke engine system included:
- scrubber, which is eliminated,
- cooling system capacity, which is reduced and the system simplified, and
- HFO treatment or tank heating, which is not needed.
At the end, the CAPEX (capital expenditure) for the COGAS ship are seen as being to be 20% to 24% above those for a conventionally-fueled vessel.
The OPEX (operating expenditure) costs largely depend on the difference in fuel price, the additional income related to the additional containers which can be transported and the savings related to a possibly higher system efficiency.
On the basis of the current gas price in Europe, which is nearly the same as the HFO price a business case in comparison with a two stroke ship using HFO plus scrubber as a reference therefore “needs compensation either by a larger difference between gas and LNG price or by additional benefits from efficiency improvement and additional revenue from additional container slots.”
Still, the partners say that the results of the feasibility study, including the CAPEX and OPEX calculations, encourage them to plan a more detailed evaluation of the overall system in a follow-up project.